Across North America, the average age of farmers exceeds 55 years, and this number is increasing. This means that aging ranchers feed the continent: every North American rancher supplies beef to consumers. On average, every Canadian farm provides beef to consumers, every ranch in the US to consumers, and every ranch or Mexican ejido to 287 consumers. These estimates were made using data provided by each country in 2011, excluding imports or exports, based on data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Calculations for the three countries were based on slaughter of cattle using the weight of the carcass in kilograms. For each country, the total number of beef produced was divided by the number of cattle farms, and the result was divided by the average consumption of beef to get an estimate of the quantity. On average, each ranch provides consumers to whom the rancher gives beef.

Undeveloped tracts of land. It is also clear from the work that land operations in rural areas and, in particular, in the cotton zone, with the exception of suburban areas, remain non-monetarized. In the case of donations or land loans, in the past they were based on trust and were not accompanied by evidence.

Earth is a matter of prestige. This is the only valuable asset that the head of the family can transfer to his descendants in the countryside. Therefore, these heirs are bound by the sacred principle of not selling this heritage. It is easy to understand that commodification of the land is not, despite certain clandestine practices, a local reality.

The broker told us that since he moved to Bla a few decades ago, he has only known two cases of agricultural land sales: the first, between the late Dramane Diabate and one man carrying twenty hectares in the village. This sale was contested by the villagers and the head of the village, who resolutely expressed their disagreement and disapproval. They brought the case to court. Indeed, for our interlocutors, the seller was not authorized to make a deal, since his father received land for rent from the village leader. But the judge dismissed the plaintiffs; the second case of the sale was the fact that a gentleman inherited a field from his father. He worked outside the Blah commune and, due to money problems, he sold most of the field to the Blah merchant. This time the sale was not in dispute.

In Africa in general, and in Mali in particular, women face discrimination, especially the one that underlies land tenure systems. This situation is the result of discriminatory cultural beliefs and practices based on gender power relations.

Transitional and development land. Access to land has always been discriminatory towards women. In fact, although women are actively involved in agricultural production activities, they are not involved in decisions that are exclusively for men. The latter, as the head of the household, organize and coordinate the work of the home group and decide on the allocation of resources. Thus, women are excluded from the distribution of land.

This exclusion of women from common resources, such as land, is based on common practice. Two significant reasons justify the exclusion of women from the distribution of land: the first is connected with the patriarchal regime based on the idea that work on the land is a male affair, and a woman takes her place on the earth.

The second, connected with the first, is that in traditional societies it is believed that a woman does not perpetuate a patriarchal origin. However, in some pedigrees in the commune, the head of household gives a piece of land to his newlywed wife as a gift. It can grow tubers, peanuts, or gardening. In addition, the president of rural women told us during an interview that they received two hectares of land from the prefect. They are currently practicing in this horticultural market, which gives them substantial income.

Country production and consumption patterns are driving a sharp increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming. The seemingly favorable evolution of emissions in countries should be compared to their carbon footprint, which attributes carbon emissions to the final point of consumption of the products, rather than to the country where they are produced.